If you could find the needed intermidiate versions of Filemaker, you might be able to convert the files to FMP 2.5, then to 5.5 then to 10 or some such conversion.
It'll most likely be less work if you open a new FMP 10 file and design a new database. Then export the data from your current file as a tab or comma separated text file. This data can then be imported into your new FMP 10 file. You'll need to design your FMP 10 file so you have a table where there is a matching field for each field in the FMP 1 file.