FileMaker Runtimes are not intended for use with FileMaker GO on an iOS device. I think that can be made to work, but there's no point in it as you can produce the same result with a regular FileMaker file.
They also have specific limitations in what they can or cannot do. They cannot host the database for other clients to access. They cannot function as the client of a hosted database. They also cannot generate PDFs from Save As PDF. There are other limitations, but those are the ones I can easily remember.
FM GO can use the iOS device's camera to scan barcodes. FileMaker Pro, runtime or not, cannot do this, but can work with a bar code scanner functoning in "keyboard emulation mode". (In keyboard emulation mode, data from the scanner is input into the computer just as though someone typed the data from the keyboard. This is usually the default mode for most scanning devices that directly connect to a computer.)
Regardless of the choices you make for how you deploy your solution, I strongly recommend that you acquire at least one copy of FileMaker Pro Advanced. Even if you have no need for runtime solutions, the developer tools that come with Advanced can save you many hours of time debugging scripts, analyzing a file's design and installing interface options (Not only Kiosk, but custom menus and custom functions) that work with FileMaker Pro and Go and which greatly enhance the function of your user interface.
Thanks PhilModJunk, your response answered most of my questions and I'll definitely be passing on that information to my manager.
DavidAnders, I have already been through all the links you have provided but thank you, clearly the quickest and cleanest solution is still to access databases through Filemaker Go on iPad.