Does this happen with just any FileMaker file or just one specific database file? (Try making a small simple file and see if you can export it to Excel.)
The fact that Recover didn't fix the problem doesn't mean that your file is OK. Comparing how it behaves to a brand new test file like this will give us a clue here.
I would create a simple database - maybe from a template and test that.
If FMP crashes, the program probably needs to be reinstalled.
If the test database works, the problem is likely to be your database.
Recover does not always repair a corrupt database. If you have a backup, I would test that with dummy records and if okay, import the data.
One option is to download the 30 demo of FMP v11 and try recover with that, it is a little more rigouroous in it's recovery and gives more info.
If you know someone on a Mac with Filemaker, sometimes a corrupt database can be successfully recovered on the other platform.
It only happens to the one file I use to most.
Then likely this file is damaged. Do you have an older backup file?
If not, you may need to rebuild your file--start with just replacing the table from which you are exporting first as it is the most likely culprit here.