Technically, "compiled" solutions do not exist in FileMaker. You can create RunTime solutions, but these are not compiled. Instead a limited function copy of the FileMaker Application is "bound" to one specific file or group of database files. This produces a non-networkable solution with certain other limitations as well.
Using FileMaker 12 Runtime files with FileMaker Go 12 | HomeBase Software
Using FileMaker 12 Runtime FileMaker Go 12 - iPhone, Android, Windows 8, Surface
360 Difference Support & Knowledgebase | Runtime Limitations
Importing data into upgraded runtime solutions (FileMaker Pro Advanced)
About creating runtime solutions (FileMaker Pro Advanced)
Binding files into a runtime solution (FileMaker Pro Advanced)
Preparing files for a runtime solution (FileMaker Pro Advanced)
Distributing runtime solutions (FileMaker Pro Advanced)
Starting runtime solutions (FileMaker Pro Advanced)
Making money with a database . Using FileMaker Pro . Forum . FileMaker Forums
Other Runtime articles
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Licensing for Runtimes or FM Go
CampSoftware | FileMaker Runtime Packages and Installer for Mac
Although your reply with the links didn't directly answer my specific questions, it did lead me into some interesting directions and I have arrived at the following conclusions:
1) No standalone runtime FMP app can ever be certified to be sold through the Apple store because FMP runtimes are not truly compiled apps and that certification of apps by Apple whether or not they are intended to be sold and downloaded through the Apple Store requires an Xcode "signature". My original reason for asking this is that the OSX "Gatekeeper" function on newer Macs is causing my customers to have to go to System Preferences to lower their security settings sometimes just to download our installer, and sometimes just to be able to run the installer. The thought of being able to "certify" the app through Apple and sell it through the Apple store was mainly to avoid the extra hassle of having customers manually changing their security settings just to install our "non-certified" app. Oh well.
2) The Java issue that I was mainly concerned about (having to install an older version of Java for customers using OSX 10.10.x [Yosemite]) turns out not to be an issue with FMP itself but with older 3rd party plugins (360 Systems Scriptmaster in particular, which we use). Here's the FMP webpage specifically addressing this issue:
3) Learning that Filemaker has "deprecated" the Runtimes beyond version 14 is...interesting, to say the least. I read the thread from May 2015 with hundreds of posts from small developers like myself who were howling at this announcement that might jeopardize their livelihoods...depending on what direction the tight-lipped Filemaker people who refuse to say, are going in. At any rate, I've not progressed from FMP 12 at this point, so there's FMP 13 and/or FMP 14 that still have Runtimes to look forward to!
4) Learning that FMP 12 is not "certifiably compatible" with OSX 10.10.x (Yosemite). Thanks Apple. It's a 2-headed incompatibility hydra! I just went through this scenario 2 years ago with FMP 11 not being compatible with OSX 10.9.x (Mavericks) which caused the upgrade to FMP 12 for that version of OSX (along with the FMP 12 structural file changes, which caused conversion headaches for both myself and existing customers). Anyway, it seems I'll need to upgrade to at least FMP 13 for Yosemite customers before the whole situation possibly flames out by the end of 2016 when FMP 15 is released...sigh.
Another Forum Member has reported in FeedBack that FileMaker has announced that they will keep runtimes and not Deprecate them--probably due to the large number of developers who complained about this.
I haven't dealt with the security issue with runtimes and Macs myself, but others have complained about this over in Report an Issue. Filemaker responded with a method that is supposed to work to take care of that problem.