A lot depends on the degree of sophistication you need in your statistical analysis:
Average, Count, Max, Min, StDev, Sum and Variance are all functions that can be used to generate statistical values over an entire set of records where each record represents a single data point. You can design relationships that work with these functions so that you can generate values such as "the Standard Deviations for color values for Lot#3456". You can learn more about these by looking up "Aggregate functions" in the on line help.
If you need more sophisticated analyis or to chart the data, you will likely need to export data to your statistical analysis software. Filemaker can export data in a variety of formats and there is a good chance that one of these formats such as tab delimitted, csv, or Excel. The export process can be automated by creating a script so that you just have to click a button to export it. What happens to the data after it's exported will depend on the capabilities of your statistics software.
Filemaker can also function as an ODBC data source--which might be an option depending on what the other software can do--though setting this up has proven to be a challenge for some judging by the threads found in this forum.