variables don't have value list options--only fields can be formatted to use a value list.
The only way to get what you are describing and only in a limited fashion is to use FileMaker Advanced to produce a DDR (Database Design Report). This can be an XML format export of data that you might be able to import into a spreadsheet app.
But also note that there are a number of third party produced apps such as BaseElements that can take the XML form of a DDR as input and produce a database that meets much of the function of your code book and much more besides.
Is there a way to export out the value lists. So if I have a value list called gender and it has male female as the two options, is there a way to export out these options somehow? It's just that otherwise I'll have to type it all out for every field. I'm trying to create a data dictionary which is why I'm asking?
This is info available from the DDR as I recall.
If you used tables as the source of values for your value lists, such an export would be very easy to do as you could just export those tables.
Otherwise, you are looking at a copy/paste from the Manage|Value Lists dialogs, one copy from each custom value list.