Layouts: Sort of.
Value List Definitions, not really.
Layouts contain very specific references to a table occurrence and the fields defined in that table occurrence's table. If you first define or import a table with the same field names as the fields in the layout and add a table occurrence with exactly the same name as the table occurrence specified in Layout Setup of the original layout, you may be able to select all layout objects and paste them into the layout. If you don't set it up that way, you get a layout full of broken layout objects with correct formatting, but which need their data references updated one object at a time. And buttons/script triggers that perform scripts add a whole other layer of complexity to this process.
See this thread for a more detailed description of the process: Importing Layouts
For value lists, you can import the tables for "use values from a field" value lists and you can copy and paste the groups of custom values for a custom value value list, but both of those actions leave many other details that have to be hand specified in the new file.