it needs to be set for each record what calculation can I set so that it gets the company name from the job.
What do you mean by "it"? That the company record should get the company name from the job? That seems backwards.
These are all stored into a record that is a timepunch that helps store time.
"These"? A record in what table?
Seems like you need these tables and relationships, but I'm just guessing here:
Where there are multiple records in TImeCards recording time worked on a specific project. And each Project is then linked to a specific Company.
But with such a set of tables/relationships, the Company name would be recorded in a field in Companies and then all related Projects and TImeCards records can display that company name. And this would not require any company name field (Neither calculation nor text) in Projects nor in TimeCards.
It seems simple...
A calculation field into the Jobs table with calc:
or directly that field in the Jobs layout.