"I would like to be able to establish a login for them so they can only view their own individual profile (records)."
This is called Record Level Access control. You can give each contact an acount and password in Manage security and set up a privilege set that limits their access to records on a record by record basis.
See "Editing record access privileges" in FileMaker Help and check out this particular sub section: "Entering a formula for limiting access on a record-by-record basis" for a detailed description of how to set this up.
Also, on a daily basis I need to be able to distribute a task to them, which they can view in a tab I have created in their profile, and they need to be able to journal how they accomplished the tasks within that same tab.
You say you are new to FileMaker. Do you know how to define a new table for tasks and link it the K_ID_Contact field in the contact management table?
That's the first step of what you need to do. Then you can add a portal to tasks. Additional fields in this task can be the fields needed for each contact to use to document how or if they have completed each assigned task.
This can be made more sophisticated at need as there are ways to build a table of frequently assigned tasks if you assing the same tasks repeatedly and then you can select tasks from this table to assign them--just to name one possibility. But you'll need to set up the basics first.