First, I suggest trying to set up a summary report for what you want. There's a "Count of" summary field that can compute sub totals for each group of records if you place it in a sub-summary part.
Here's a link to a simple tutorial on setting up summary reports that you may find useful:
Creating Filemaker Pro summary reports--Tutorial
You can use count functions for this also. The way to use it is to define a relationship that uses the criteria you need so that only the records you want counted match.
Let's say your faculty table has a field called "Degree".
Create a separate table occurrence of Faculty, call it FacultyByDegree and link it to your Degrees table this way:
Degrees:: Degree = FacultyByDegree:: Degree
Now a calculation field in Degrees written as Count ( FacultyByDegree:: Degree ) will count all faculty records that have the same degree. If you create a list view layout of your faculty records and place both the Degree and this calculation field in the body, you'll get a list of all degrees and the counts for each.
Note: I'm suggesting a new table occurrence of Faculty to keep existing relationships between Faculty and Degrees unchanged. If the two tables are already linked by Degree, then you don't need a new table occurrence and the count function can just be Count ( Faculty:: Degree ).
Thank you so much for your answer. The sub-summary layouts were something I was completely unaware of, but playing around with them I see that they are really powerful tools.
You were a great help for my first post to these forums!