I think what you want is the ability to link data in one record to data in another record. In filemaker, you'd use Manage | Database | Relationships to define relational links between one table occurrence and another. A table occurrence is a box on the graph that "points to" a specific data source table. The two table occurrences in a relationship may even point to the same data source table, enabling two records in the same table to be linked.
If you want to link different documents, you'd store the document (or its file path reference) in a container field and use a second unique ID number field in the same record to establish a link to another document stored in another record's container field.
This is a very generalized description, and the implementation details multiply and vary rapidly depending on how you want to design your database.
Note that Oracle is most likely doing exactly the same thing "under the hood". The Smart Team developers used another software program such as Visual Basic to design the screens you see and interact with and which passes the data into tables and relationships defined in Oracle. Duplicating the capabilities of Smart Team in Filemaker would likewise require that a developer spend the time desiging the required tables, relationships and user interface. Unlike Oracle, both the interface and data design can be done in one application: Filemaker.