Can you open this file on a different computer?
Do you have a copy of Filemaker advanced?
If so, launch filemaker without opening this file and enable the script debugger, then try to open the file. This will allow you to see if a script set to run when the file is opened is for some reason closing the file immediately after it opens.
It is possible that one of the caches on that machine is corrupted.
There are several kinds of caches, including system and user caches.
Clearing caches is a function included in many utilities.
AppleJack will clear many, but not all caches.
Font caches in particular.