It would help to upgrade to FileMaker Advanced. You could then copy a field while in Manage | database | Fields, change tables by selecting a different one from the drop down and then click paste to paste the field definition thus copied into the other table. This would quickly and exactly replicate both the field name and the field options. Without Advanced, you'll have to do much of this manually while carefully comparing all field and storage options to make sure that they match. You will be able to copy and paste field names and any calculation expressions in calculation field and auto-enter calculations.
To move your data, you'll need to use Import records very carefully. The good news is that your database tables all have a foreign key field matching back to "identifier" on your Patients table. So you should be able to go to a layout based on the table with the wrong fields, perform a find to pull up a found set of just the records that have data you need to copy over to the other table. Then change to a layout based on the other table and use Import records to import the data, being careful to match the right fields up for the import.
It would be a very good idea to make a back up copy just prior to attempting this import so that if you make a mistake, you have the option of discarding the current file and reverting to the back up copy.
Thanks for your help. An upgrade wasn't in the financial cards, so I had to do it manually. I made backups just in case, but everything seems to have worked out just fine. Thanks again!