You've asked a very general question, but the devil is in the details.
The general answer is "Yes". You can set up a system that enables you to find records where a field starts with or contains specific text and then you can delete those records. You can even clear just the field and leave the rest of the record.
You can also prevent specific text from being entered into such a field in the first place.
But keep in mind that FileMaker is a development platform. It won't come with much in the way of a ready made solution so someone will need to set up this database for you and FileMaker does not work exactly like Excel so people transitioning from Excel to FileMaker sometimes struggle with the change in interface and underlying differences in how data is stored and referenced.
Best bet is to download the 30 day free trial install of FileMaker and see what you can do with it. You can ask questions here in the forum as you do so or spend some time with the various training resources available. If you do decide to use FileMaker, get one copy of FileMaker Advanced for each person that will be doing any kind of serious database design work on your database. This version has tools that can save you hours of frustration diagnosing problems in your database design and also allows you to customize user interfaces in ways not possible just with FileMaker Pro. Save FileMaker Pro for your users to use on the database that you use Advanced to create.