These questions are too basic. It's like going on to an Adobe Photoshop community forum and asking them how to 'get' photoshop to 'improve' your photos. If you phrased your questions this way because you were in a hurry, I suggest you go into more detail. Zero in on the problematic sections of your relationship diagram and outline what you are trying to achieve. Remember, this forum consists of fellow filemaker developers- not support staff from Filemaker, Inc.
If on the other hand by 'new to filemaker' you mean that you literally just opened the filemaker layout mode for the first time then... welcome to the club! We all started from scratch, and most of us are still learning every day. Two good resources to begin to acquire the level of knowledge required to ask meaningful questions and receive detailed answers are Lynda.com (a site offering video tutorials on many programs including filemaker) and the FileMaker Pro 13: The Missing Manual.
I also noticed that a new book was released titled "FileMaker 13 Absolute Beginner's Guide." I haven't read it, but it was written by Tim Dietrich who developed EasySync which won the "FileMaker Excellence Award for FBA Development of the Year" this year at the FileMaker Developer Conference.
Once you've got the fundamentals down, you can take advantage of a wealth of online resources aimed at filemaker devs including:
forums (filemaker/technet/fmforums/filemaker daily/etc....)
blogs (weetbicks, six fried rice, etc...)
specialty sites (filemaker standards.org, filemaker magazine, etc...)
aggregators (scoop.it has some nice filemaker accounts)
third party plug in sites like seecode which occassionaly give hand out videos/files gratis
Above all, and across all these resources, you will find the contributions of a dedicated set of professionals like Phil, Matt Petrowsky, Jeremy Bante, etc... to be invaluable. In fact here is a nice series of interviews with some of these people:
Yes I'm new, Very new, new job and told to do this with a program I have never heard of 10 days ago. They purchases it 14 months ago to do this project and no one here knows about the program or touched it. So here I am, get it done with all of this other stuff. So I stay until midnight a few days a week to get time to get something working. I appreciate your comments and will buy the book and watch the videos because I need to learn fast.
I have been on Lynda.com and all I found was what new in FileMaker 11 so I'm watching that. I will look again.
"Very new, new job and told to do this with a program I have never heard of 10 days ago."
I hugely sympathize with that. With regards to Lynda- if you're working with filemaker 12, then i guess you'd start with fmp 12 essential training:
After Cris covers relationships, he'll recommend this shorter series:
After that finish essential training and move to in depth training:
That is IF you decide to go the video tutorial route. It's a mixed bag in my opinion.(Edit: On second thought I'd say go with the video tutorials for sure if you have the time and the ~40 bucks to do so). I did it because I have no experience in "computer programming," however I seriously underestimated the extent to which my background in mathematics would prepare me for this sort of task. Video tutorials are inefficient in terms of time spent vs. experience gained. The fact that you can download the files he's working with is nice. *Seeing* everything that's being discussed is very nice. It's a 20 hour investment.
I basically spent about that much time with the videos, and when I sat down to start doing real work I sort of drew a blank for the first day or two. Nevertheless, the videos had prepared me to *find* what I needed (on forums, in reference books, in the all Filemaker Inc. pdf guides, on blogs, etc...).
How can I get FileMaker to add up the number of times "Particulate" or "Lint" etc show up in my 54 fields?
This answer assumes details that may not be the case, but this sounds like you need a set of up to 54 related records instead of 54 fields in the same table.
Then doing statistical analysis of the data in them becomes much easier to do. You can get counts, totals, averages, standard deviations, etc just from built in features of fileMaker.