This should not work for only one record. I don't think that this is exactly what you want, but it should limit access to all records in Work History where location contains text that is exactly the same as the current user's account name.
Access to records in other tables will be more problematic with this expression as the relationship between that table and the values in match field(s) of that record which then control which record in Work History is being referenced will control which work history record's location field will be compared to the current user's account name to determine access.
Could I create a field in the "Employee Information" table that takes the locations from the work history and limit the view to the following:
"Employee Information::Location = Get(AccountName)"
Then make the security priviliges target that field instead
I would need to find a way to make the calculation search the related records and find any record that is active (no end date) and place it there.
It's not really a question I can answer without knowing quite a bit more about the design of your database and how you need this record level access control set up to work for you.