Yes if you set up a relationship called a "self join" that matches records on that apartment number field. This will look like you are creating a new table in order to set up the relationship but you are not actually creating a new table:
In Manage | Database | relationships, make a new table occurrence of Students by clicking it and then clicking the duplicate button (2 green plus signs). You can double click the new occurrence box to get a dialog to appear where you can rename the new occurrence box.
We have not duplicated a table. Instead, this is a new reference to the same table already present in your database.
Add it to your relationships like this:
Students::ApartmentNumber = Students 2::ApartmentNumber
With that relationship in place you can put a portal to Students 2, but the name field(s) from Students in this portal and you'll have your list of all people living in that same apartment. A more sophisticated relationship can even omit the current student so that you get a list of just the room mates to the current student record.