No. Filemaker will not and cannot "synch" like that.
And a field's storage option is not a "layout change". It's a change made at the data level in Manage | Database.
Note: updating a calculation field's field calculation can leave a previously stored calculation unstored if the calculation now references something that requires that it be unstored, such as a global field.
And calculation fields that have global storage specified, but reference non-global fields evaluate in really "funky" ways--which can easily produce confusing results.