Yes. But you would need to create a little table for this, with 2 fields, one for the Display value, one for the number value. Then, in the Value List dialog, you would choose, "Use values from a field." In the 2nd dialog, on the left, you would choose that table,* and your number field. Then, on the top right, you would check [x] Also display values from 2nd field. Choose the same table (should be there already) and your Display field.
Lower down, leave [x] Include all values checked. Then, check [x] Show values only from 2nd field.
It is critical when you use this functionality that there be no duplicate values in the 2nd field. But in this case that is not going to be a problem.
*The table will be on the Relationship Graph, but it does not need to be connected to anything. You may want to name it to reflect its use. I use a "_VL" suffix for "for value list only" table occurrences.
P.S. You say you are new to FileMaker. Hopefully this means you have a newer version. This "2nd field" functionality was added in FileMaker 8 I believe.
Keep in mind that when you use field/control | Setup to format a field with this value list, that the Pop-Up Menu and Drop Down List options produce different effects.
When you aren't actually in the field with the value list popped up or dropped down, Pop-up menus show the matching 2nd column value instead of the stored column 1 value. Drop down lists show the stored column 1 value.