Thank you for the post.
"You must use the full installer if you are running Mac OS X 10.8."
Thanks so much, TSFalcon!! :) I had already read all of those tech support articles before starting this thread and none of them were of any help to me, but hopefully that list of articles in one unified spot will be of great help to somebody else in the future!! :) I believe that the solution is one that a colleague of mine came up with:
The version of Java that needs to be installed needs to be A VERY SPECIFIC VERSION OF JAVA that YOUR SPECIFIC VERSION OF FILEMAKER SERVER depends on.
In other words, I can't just install the latest version of Java and expect it to work with the old version of FileMaker Server. I have to go back in time and somehow find an old installer of an old version of Java that exactly matches the version of Java that the old version of FileMaker Server depends on.
FileMaker Server for OS X does not ship with any copies of Java… it depend on OS X to download Java. And apparently, Apple keeps an archive of some of the old versions of Java here: http://support.apple.com/downloads/#java
However, it could take me weeks of troubleshooting & uninstalling/reinstalling to find the proper version of Java for the proper version of FileMaker Server. So, I'm just forcing my client to upgrade to FileMaker Server 13. That should solve the problems for now.
Had the same issue yesterday, was able to get FMS 11.0.5 running on 10.8.5 with Java Runtime 7u17 and Java JDK 8u45. You can download the older versions from Oracle, but I needed to register and sign in to get them.
You can check Java JRE by running java -version in Terminal, and can check JDK version in System Preferences -> Java.