Thank you for your post.
Since the PDF images aren't displaying in the Container fields, I'll assume the Container field is set up for Interactive content.
The only time Adobe should launch is if Adobe is your default application for PDF files, and the PDF file is stored as a reference and you double -click on the PDF icon in the Container field. However, since you mention that you move the file to another computer with FileMaker Pro and it works, I doubt this is the case.
Also, you mentioned that you replaced all FileMaker references in the Registry. What else have you done to the Registry?
Since it works on another computer, let's handle the FileMaker Pro side first by uninstalling and reinstalling FileMaker Pro, as this will then write fresh entries into the Registry. If the issue still occurs, uninstall and reinstall Adobe Reader.
Any other information you can provide about your computing environment may be helpful.