Thank you for your post.
If you switch to Form view, how does the data appear? If you put your cursor in the fields, what appears?
If you login with a [Full Access] account, does information display in those fields?
Sounds like you need to pull a copy down off the server-maybe a recent back up and do a recover of the file. Select Advanced Recover options and specify "copy file blocks as is" and "rebuild indexes now". This long standing bug appears to be due to a corrupted index so you should only need to rebuild the indexes in the file to correct the problem.
For More Information see: Phantom Record, damaged file message, Recover can't detect a problem
This is one of many acknowledged bugs that can be found in the Known Bug List thread here in the Report an Issue section of the forum.
It can also be downloaded as a database file from: https://www.dropbox.com/s/jt09b82i0xijbu3/FMP%20Bugs.zip