Thank you for your post.
Although I'm well aware this doesn't help you, FileMaker Pro should work on Tiger (10.4.11).
I'd like to remove any possible barriers, so if you have any other applications running, please quit. Try launching FileMaker Pro 10. If this doesn't work, then reboot the machine and then launching. If this fails, then remove the trial version, download a new trial and reinstall. Does this work?
Do you have access to another machine? If so, install the trial and launch. Any problems?
Any other information you can provide about your system may be helpful to narrowing down the possible cause(s).