There are functions built into Filemaker Pro to help you with date calculations. You can also format your date fields to show something like Thursday, October 11, 2011. Your questions have been addressed for over 20 years. Filemaker Go is not a development language but a 'dumb client on steroids." It carries out the instructions created in Filemaker Pro.
Answer: format the date field to display the date using the inspector or menu items.
Answer: create a calculated field to show just the day of the week... DayName ( date )