Thank you for your post.
All of the information looks correct, and I'm well aware that doesn't help you.
Based on what I see, I would first disconnect from the network, and reinstall FileMaker Pro. You may also want to temporarily turn off the firewall so that all ports are open. Once deployed, then turn on the firewall and open the necessary ports.
You may also want to contact our Technical Support department directly at 800-325-2747, as all installation issues are no cost. If you are located outside North America, then contact the FileMaker office nearest you. The Support Technician can stay with you on the phone to try out different scenarios until the right combination is found.
Thanks, I did a clean install of Windows and FM Server and it's now working.