You'll need to use that back up copy. Copy that back up copy across the network to your machine. Open it in FileMaker Pro. Use save a copy as with the clone option to save an empty copy of the file. Put this clone back up on your server.
PS. Generating a new copy of a file for every year is usually not the optimum way to manage data. A single file where records have a number field to identify the year makes better sense. You can keep all your data for multiple years in the same file this way, but use finds or relationships to work with data for a specific year.
You don't state why you want to do this, but it's probably a bad idea. You should likely be keeping all the data in one file, using finds to winnow your records to the selected year.
Regardless, yes, you can do a scheduled (or on-demand) backup in Server, including creating a clone.
It's worthwhile to read through the basic FM Server documentation to understand that much.
If you wanted to get fancy, there are ways of automatically renaming the file using a batch script and re-opening it, but if you don't know how to run a regular server backup, that's going to be beyond your reach.
Is it possible to schedule a server backup that produces a cloned copy in Server 11 or 12?
I'm still using 10 here and don't see any such option--hence my advice to take a regular back up and use it to generate the clone.
Yes, on both 11 and 12 you can make a clone.