Thank you for your post.
These issues may have to do with FileMaker Pro 11 not being compatible with the Windows 10 Operating System. You might check Knowledge Base Article #7546 for compatibility information. Currently, FileMaker Pro 14 is the only software certified to run on Windows 10.
As to #1, that's known as a ligature in typography. Usually it's an application-based controllable feature, available for OpenType fonts that have a complete set included in the font (fl, fi are very common pairs, if you want to test). I can't see where it is coming from in your attached image, but you could test by switching fonts.
As to the rest, I would look through IE's settings as that would be the engine behind the scenes, no?