To clarify, by "space" I mean space within each field /cell.
There is only setting for row height for table view, in layout mode.
table view is perfect for 'administrator layouts' - if You need more 'layouting', use the list view where one can take advantage of all of the FileMaker layout options (and yes - FM12 was quite poor when it comes to styles/css, FM14 is much better. But table view remains table view...)
In Layout mode, you can use Inspector to add "padding" to any field. This will show in what ever "view" you choose, including Table view.
Click a field to select it.
make sure the Appearance tab is frontmost in Inspector
under the Paragraph section, add "space" to the Left or Right.
Wow, it is labeled as "indents" and really useful for table view.
But "padding" which is in "Advanced graphic" is not used in table view, and indents not affect to top and bottom as you say (this may not trouble with alphabetical language, but Japanese kanji...)
here is the screen shot for those more visually enhanced...
I used a Starter Solution in FM12. Note the spacing before the field "Employee Name" in Layout mode. This shows in Browse mode in Form, List _and_ Table views. I do this all the time with layouts that are Table-view only and dislike the "spacing" before and/or after a column divider. I'll add Left and Right indents, if desired.
This has nothing to do with the "padding" (via CSS/Theme) that appears around the field, but the content in the field. The "indents", are the standard indent for paragraphs, of course. If the field contains more than one "line" (wrap or not), then each paragraph will indent. But it's useful for the Table-view of single-line data, too.