Lets have a go ( if you will pardon the pun) and not an official response, just some observations.
Pro and Pro Advanced are paid for software, Go and Webdirect are not, but have requirements outlined later.
1: You can install it at the office and on another machine like a laptop, but not to be used at the same time. you can use the same file on the same network as the machine is running with Go, or inded take a copy of the file and put it on Go but then you have to deal with record changes. You could in theory open the file form a cloud service as you are only using it properly in one location at a time. NOT recommended, but 'could' be done
2: Extension of 1: you can have up to 5 Go users connecting to the file (hosted in Pro) - in the same location on the same network, or copy it as many times as you like to as many devices as you like, but the file is essentailly static.
3: For up to 5 people you can buy them each a copy and host the file in the office and on the same network to them connect to your file on your machine. Dangers here are around what happens if the connection is lost, or you are doing a million other things on that machine, and the lack of things like automatic backups
4: At the moment you can use the new iOS SDK kit to package up a stand alone application to be sold on the app store (can be zero cost) but you first need to have a paid developer subscription and have to go through the Apple store approval process. But to answer your question Go is/can be self-contained so you can give away/ sell a file to be used on Go - but that file will be static. So a product catalogue, and when you want to update it then you are into a world of pain and managment/
5: At the moment there is such a thing as a runtime creator in FileMaker Pro Advanced. It will be depracated at some time in the future but there are many peple who have a business model which sells runtimes. They are however also limited in what they can do, like no network connection to a server, no PDF creation and a child of other key points. You also need Advanced on both MAc and Windows platforms to create these.
6: If you publish a solution through WebDirect, it can only be done on FileMaker server, and you need paid connections for that access. This is on the basis of concurrency, and are sold in blocks of 5. (you also get one free with Server) This means that any number of people may connect to your solution up to your maximum at any one time, but this is not the total number who could know about it. These connections are also shared with Go for access to your served file..
There are three ways to buy the software.
For single Pro/Advanced licences from the web store (or through an FBA reseller)
For more than 5 copies at a time, or for any number plus server you can either do a rental model (so much a year for every year you want to use it) AVLA
Or a licence with a higher initial outlay VLA, with the option of a maintenance contract for approx 20% for subsequent years which gives you access to any new versions in the calendar period. You can always stop tihs but then have to pay full retail price to get new versions later.
hope this is some help
Just a couple of items to add to what john has stated :
FMP can only have a total of five concurrent users connected at one time, this include FMGo clients. If you ever need more than five concurrent users connected to your database then you will need FMS. The FMGo and Webdirect client is the same on FMS. Sold in pack of 5 and can be used for FMGo or Webdirect.
FM does have the iosSDKApp that is based on FMGo and will let you distribute your app for ios devices.
Regarding # 5: it's still possible to create a runtime on FMPA. There's currently no timeline for its removal.
5: Agreed, but the technology is marked for deprecation, after a bit of reaction FMI said it will be there in at least the next version, so I am thinking good for at least another 6+ years until new OS or hardware stops it.
yes and it's a bit of a mystery to me. If developers are no longer able to generate runtimes it will be disastrous for some. I suspect FMI has another technology up its sleeve. At least I hope so.
Thank you everyone for your time. It's very much appreciated.