Queries are FIND and SORT. There are manual ways to do these actions and there are "scripted" ways to do these actions.
You may start with the FileMaker Training Series (BASIC) as a starting point to learning how FileMaker works.
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in Filemaker don't exist a report but the layout and preview mode.
Yes, the FORM is the layout. Preview is what it would look like printed. However the 'query' is to get (SELECT / FIND) & arrange (ORDER BY / SORT). FM is not sql
I approve what do you write. Filemaker isn't born as relation database. I would append that recent function, ExecuteSql() of Filemaker or with external plug-in, have favorite a major step for SQL query in Filemaker.
As a start:
For getting _records_, use the FileMaker functionality ('find mode', 'sort', etc.), show the (sorted) results in a layout with summary parts (etc.)
For getting _data_, use eSQL - this will show the data in a text-box (field, $/$$-variable, etc). You can gather data via eSQL and create a 'virtual list' for display (~view)
Filemaker does not have "queries" like Access. In Access you define your basic table relationships (in the relationship graph) but you do not build a multi table form or report directly from the relationship graph. You first create a query where you select the related tables and fields, define how they are joined (best to use join fields in the relationship graph but can use any fields), sort, filter, aggregate, etc. You build the form/report based on the query, or for quick analysis, just view the query itself.
In Filemaker, the relationship graph is used for much more, and incorporate some of the query features. You generally will define multiple relationships for the tables, and the tables will be shown multiple times. These different table views are referred to as table occurrences ("TOs"). In FileMaker, you can define sorting, and difference types of relationships (e.g. greater than or equal to) in this graph. Your multi-table forms and reports are built directly from these TOs in the relationship graph. Additional filtering, sorting, selection of fields, etc. are done in the forms and reports.
I am moving from Access to Filemaker, and do miss the queries from Access for the quick throw away analysis and views. Filemaker has added a SQL function where you can execute SQL commands on related tables bypassing the relationship graph; but you need to enter the SQL command (no drag or drop functionality as in Access queries).