Layers are not possible but you do not need them for this project. You can set up a table where each record represents a specific class period for a specific date for a specific teacher's class. Data from such a table can be displayed in the rows and columns you describe using a number of methods that you can find here in the forum to produce a cross tab report.
There are then several ways to display a merged view of this data to get one row for each hour with cells "colored in" for any hour/day where at least one class is being taught. One method uses subsummary parts other methods use relationships and calculations.
Thanks for your idea. I knew there had to be a method that accomplishes the same goal. Let me work on it and I would like to get back to you if I have questions.
Thanks again for taking the time to respond to my post!!