The main consideration that you need to track this for each user session so globals may play a significant role int he solution. In the case their are multiple simultaneous users providing breadcrumb navigation can be difficult. This might give you some ideas.
As long as you store this "stack" of previously visited layout names in a global variable, you should be able to do it. Script triggers can "push" a new layout name onto the stack. A text field can display this list horizontally and a script performed by OnObjectEnter can use the cursor position with a looping script to parse the layout name from the list.
So I'd use a global variable to store each layout name as a return separated list. That makes updating it and "pruning" layout names off the list because the user clicked the global "nav" field easy to do. The list of visited fields can be displayed in an unstored calculation field that uses substitute to replace the returns with your <--- text.
To start, I suggest searching this forum for posts about "back button" topics to find resources on how to build and update that list of layout names in a variable. Then take a wack at adding the unstored calculation field with script trigger to produce the interface that you want.
Oh Yes, this script trigger and parse method works in FileMaker Pro but not in FileMaker Go.