Is it possible and advisable to back up a computer running FM Server 17 to a connected Time Machine drive? Back in the FM 11 days you couldn't do this.
The backup best practices really have not changed much / at all with the introduction of FileMaker Server 17.
The big takeaway here is that Time Machine (and other 3rd party backup solutions) should be configured to exclude the Databases (Data) folder and any applicable sub-folders, AND any location that FileMaker Server is opening databases from. In other words, never back up a FileMaker file that is open and if you need to, pause / close it first using a server / system script and then proceed with your backup.
Backing up backups, however, should be OK since they are not actively open and being used.
Keep in mind that processes like Time Machine could affect performance as they potentially could be performing I/O and therefore sucking up processing power and HD / SSD / storage resources / cycles that could be used for hosting your FileMaker files.
As Steve said, yes, Time Machine can be used as long as you set the backs to skip the Live FM data folder. Go to Time Machine System Preference and Click option to add it.
You should also go to the Spotlights folder and tell it to mark the FileMaker Live data folder as private too! It should be indexing files in the Live FileMaker Data folder.
Lastly, as Steve noted above, Time Machine (and Spotlight) can end up using a bit of horse power. Do you really need them running? You will get better performance from FileMaker by not running them.
Backups are best to be pointed to another drive locally mounted so your backups and live data aren't on the same storage device. But if you do the backups on the same drive, but you also want to copy them to another drive say on the network (which you can't directly do from FileMaker), then I use Carbon Copy Cloner to backup the Backups folder (Not the live Data).
Retrieving data ...