Hello, dmclelland. Welcome to FileMaker.
Charts are a type of layout object. You create one by dragging the Chart tool onto your layout in Layout Mode:
Once you have drawn the object to whatever size you need, you set its parameters to pull the data from the database. You can draw data from the current table, one or more related tables, or from variables or global fields that are delimited by carriage returns (i.e., "delimited data").
The key here is that a layout is not restricted to only one chart object. You can place as many as you like (although aesthetics will necessarily limit the number to something reasonable). So, as your screen shot demonstrates, you can set different chart objects to display different formats, ranges, and sources of data on the same layout.
If that doesn't answer your question, let us know perhaps more specifically what you're having trouble with and maybe we can help with that.
You may want to check out the following Technical Breif: Charts in FileMaker Pro
It contains a PDF which covers charting in detail, and it also includes a sample file.
Once you understand how to generate your own charts, then as Mike mentioned, you'll be able to add multiple chart objects to a single layout.
Hope this helps.