You could only do this with a chart inside a webviewer with links back into your database. This is a bit complicated to really explain here. SixFriedRice has an article that has an example of loading a graph into a web viewer, that would show you the basics:
The native filemaker chart is itself an object, so you can turn the chart into a button itself, but it only can have a single action.
If you have a static (never changing) number of columns, you can make "invisible" buttons that lay on top of your chart.
For this, create a new text box with just a space in it, drag the box boundaries to cover a column. Right click on the text box and choose "button setup", then tie it to an action. Repeat for all columns. This is the easiest way to go about what you want to do, but as noted, only supports a static number of columns.