A couple of things:
1. Every layout has to have a table associated with it. In this case, a query layout, the table that underliesthe layout could be a resource table. Many develoeprs create a table of nothing but global fields in which to use throughout their system. This would contain just one record. So it is possible to create a query layout based on this table and potentially use global fields to enter values to search against data tables.
2. Your value list has to come from a table and two of the fields in that table. When creating a value list, you have the option of typing in your own values or selecting fields from a table. If you do the latter, then you can do exactly what you require: Show only the text, but store the ID in the field. This is a common practice. (There's a refinement to this that is possible, and can be explained separately)
3. Again, your layout, based on the Resources table, can contain a global field called Layout which contains the value list of values from the table. I assume you'd have a table of layout names which correspond to the layouts in your solution. The user could select a layout from the list and a button could be programmed to go "Go To Layout By Name". In the calculation box of this choice you simply enter the global field. This will go to the layout with the name of the value in this field.
You have to make sure, of course, that the layout names in the table are exactly the same as the ones you want the user to have access to while using this method.
Here's a sample file.
One note, if you're trying to create a value list that contains the ID and the layout name, as you describe in your post) then "Go to layout by name" won't work because the value of the global field is the ID not the name. We'd have to further refine it.
GoToLayout.fmp12.zip 65.5 K
What Jeremy describes is pretty much what I would suggest:
1. Create a bunch of global fields in which users enter the varius find criteria they want
2. Create a script which (1) collects the find criteria as variables, (2) goes to a suitable layout to actually perform the Find/s, and (3) ends on a suitable layout which displays the found record/s for the user's pleasure.