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One option is that you make your field as number field, then from options click the "Calculated value" and your calculation is "your percentage field" / 100.
I also took the "Do not replace existing value of field (if any)" option off.
Use the Decimal (or Currency) formatting option and add a trailing "%".
Insert:Merge Field is an interesting option:
And of course you could just use your field on the layout and put the text label % next to it. This would show as 10%. That would be the simplest method.
I understand not wanting to create a new calc, but sometimes it's the best way to go. If you've got data coming from an outside source, you may not want to apply auto-enter options to change it. This can bite you if you end up manually entering the data within FMP. There are audit/integrity issues too.
Also, if you are going to use this field in calcs later, you'll have to always remember to convert it within those calcs. This introduces complexity into those calcs and creates potential programmer error.
An extra calc takes a some disc space to store. If your record count reaches to 100,000 + this may become an issue. Otherwise an "extra" calc field may be the best way to go. Disk space is often cheaper than the cost of programming complexity.
If in the data formatting panel you set the format as "Decimal" you can then enter the "%" symbol in the notation field.
EDIT: Which I now realize is the same thing erolst said.
My two bob's worth:
1. The suggestion by erolst will display the number as you want, but you will have to remember that this is only a display thing—the underlying number is still a whole number 10, not 1 tenth. This means that you would have to bear this in mind in any calculation that references that field (eg. what is the tax component of the total price?)
2. I agree with BobGossom's thoughts regarding data integrity. If it were me I would want the data imported from the external vendor kept in a separate field so that I know exactly what was imported, including its format. Any functional cost of an additional field may simply be the price you pay for that integrity. Alternatively, you may not need a calc that ONLY converts it to a decimal percentage when you can simply account for its raw format in any calc that references it anyway.