That is quite a project. I would start by looking into some formal type of training first if you are trying to build something quite so comprehensive.
You are looking at something that would take an experienced filemaker developer months to accomplish. It would be best suited that if you are set on trying to tackle this on your own to at least read up on databases and filemaker. Once you get a good understanding of how they work you should find a good starting point based on your needs.
How about if i just start out with a basic student information system? none of them features. But with the gradebook and scheduling