You can only put one file in any given container field, but you can set up a table of related fields so that you can have as many related records with files inserted in their container fields associated with one main record as you need. A portal can be used to display this list of related records.
Have more than one file link as an alias to a record?
Since each related record can be given a field with a unique serial ID number you can link multiple records from the other table to this one related record with the container field. Also, since you can insert a file "by reference", you can have multiple container fields that store the same reference and thus refer to the same file.
Be able to open the file via some button or field in that record's layout?
Export field contents can export a container field's file and then open it. This action can be attached to a button so that clicking the button exports and opens the file. If the file is inserted by reference, you can open it just by double clicking the container field.
Quicklook any of those associated files?
What is "quick look"? You'd have to describe that before I could describe any parallel capabilities that might exist in FileMaker.
Quicklook is a function built into Mac OS X - I suppose Bento had it built in because Bento is designed to only work with Macs, while as Filemaker works across the board. However, Quicklook is easily one of the coolest features of OS X - it allows you by simply hitting the spacebar while you have a file highlighted in a Finder window (Finder is Mac's version of Windows Explorer) and the user is shown a preview of a file instantly, without having to actually open the file with an application. It works with pdfs, pictures, movies, songs, powerpoints, zip files, anything. Its great for a database because it enables the user to just "sneak peak" (or Quick-look) at a file to see if it is what they're looking for before they actually open it.
That isn't something readliy available in FileMaker. With certain types of files such as picture files, you can come pretty close. If it's something like a word file, then it would be harder to set up.
Using a picture file as an example, You can create a second layout with a much larger size copy of the same container field. When a person clicks a button on the first layout, a FileMaker script can open a New Window and switch to the layout with the larger view of the same container field. The user thus can click on a thumbnail and see a larger copy of the image pop up in a new window...