The issue is that I need to use the same Departments and same Faults/Modification in a series of 9 more field pairs as I have already set up and then set up a search that allows the end user to be able to search for a specific combination
That's the first issue. Setting up a related table where you can create and edit 9 or more related records will simplify your database design and be more flexible as well. In terms of your conditional value list, this will leave you with one relationship to your related table instead of 9 different relationships as would be required with your current set up.
I know that it is not efficient to have to set up a further 9 tables to repeat the information in order to make 9 more conditional value lists...
Even if you stay with your 9 sets of fields in one record structure, you would not need 9 identical tables storing the same information. Open Manage | database | Relationships and click one of the table occurrence "boxes" to select it. Then click the duplicate button (two green plus signs). This creates a duplicate reference to the same table so that you can use it in relationships, but does not duplicate any actual tables.
Since you have v12 you can use ExecuteSQL() To easily create conditional value lists using unstored calculation for your value list. This website wil not allow me to paste from iPad but just google for FM12 ExecuteSQL unconference.
By the way ... for anyone using v12 this will change the way you work. I first saw unstored calc used for value list 3 years ago by Michael Horak (Comment). Powering it with ExecuteSQL makes it MIND-BLOWING.