How do you want this to look on the final version of your layout?
In your test file, what I see as Field1, Field2, Field3 could easily be set up as three records instead of three fields and then you only need a single relationship to make this work.
Depending on how you need to design the final version of your layout, you may be able to set up a join table where each record in the join table has the translated text for a single field and then one row portals to that join table might be used to show the correct translation record for the correct field. But much depends on how you need to set up your layout.
Unfortunately, they cant be set up as three records, as this is a over-simplified version of the table that has 30-something fields in it.
And the layout design should be rather similar to the one in the test file, plus another 26-27 fields, so lets say it calls for a single table containing all said records...
Is there a way to connect two value lists in the fields of the same table like:
List One List Two
Jedan -------- One
Dva -------- Two
Tri -------- Three
so if You pick "Dva" from the first list, for example, it will automatically pick "Two" from the other one?
If the layout design is similar to the test file, then you can make the change that I am suggesting and put each "field" in its own record. The fact that this results in 26 or more records would not be a problem and allows you to use a single relationship instead of 26 relationships to 26 different table occurrences of the look up table.
For your second question, I've assumed from the beginning that selecting "Dva" in the value list would cause "Two" to appear in another field, but this would not be a second value list, just another field in the same record of the same table where "Dva" was entered.