Thank you for your post.
Your question is a little vague, so let me describe what FileMaker can do.
There is no limit to the number of records or fields you can add to a table. You are limited only by the file size of the operating system.
FileMaker Pro does have calculation fields that can be based upon a date. For example,
If (Year(DateField) = 2008, Value, 0)
Case (Year (DateField) = 2008, Value,
Year (DateField) = 2007, Value * .95,
Year (DateField) = 2006, Value * .90,
Value * .85)
That is, if the year of the date field is 2008, display the value. If it is 2007, display the value * 95%. If it is 2006, display the value * 90%. Otherwise, show 85% of the value.
You can also subtract two dates from one another to get days. For example,
If (Today - DateField)< 365, Value, 0)
That is, if the DateField has occurred within the last year, display the value. Otherwise, display zero.
I hope this gives you some ideas. If you have more specific examples, let me know, and I'll give you the calculations.