Is there a way to narrow the choices down so that only the pertinent info is showing?
Yes. How to do it requires properly designing tables, fields and relationships to enable this. Can't really spell out the details without knowing more about your fields, tables and layouts.
A general solution, is that you will need fields in your tables that can be used to group your records into each of the categories you mention. For example, if you want to pull up all records for cities from a specific time zone, then your cities table will need time zone field where you identify their time zone location. Now you can use either find requests or you can define relationships to pull up the needed sub groups.
I suspect that you will need to create some additional tables and/or relationships to help you accomplish this, but can't say for certain just by what you posted here. You might want to hire the services of a consultant to help you do this.