No, you cannot split table view as you describe. But you can create several different layouts where the first few columns are the same and the columns to the right differ on each layout. Buttons can be placed in the header of a table view that switch layouts to change the view.
Replace Field Contents can be used to put the same value in a field for all records in your found set. This would require isolating the records you want to update in a found set before using that menu option.
Please note that List View can also be used to produce a table like view and its options are somewhat different from table view. you can also use portals to get table like views of your data via a relationship.
Thank you! That's the answer I need!