Can you post a screen shot in browse mode, and a screen shot in layout mode?
What you describe sounds like Table View. Try clicking the Modify button to see if you can add fields to your view.
Or enter layout mode, use the field picker or field tool to add fields to your layout and use List or Form view to view your data instead of Table View.
Thanks PhilModJunk--this worked. For whatever reason, there were no fields listed in Table View or in any Layout Mode, but I was able to add all the fields in using the Modify button.