radio button fills take their colour from the line property of the field, so yes you can, but if you're asking if for example a NO will display RED, and a YES will display GREEN, then NO :)
While symbister is correct, using layout text, conditional formatting and scripted buttons, it's possible to create what looks like a radio button field and that assigns values to a single field like a radio button field, but has different color "radio buttons".
You can add bullet characters as layout text, format them as buttons with set field steps to assign different values to a field. Conditional formatting can specify a very large font size to hide the button and now you have two or more bullet characters that can have different text colors specified for when they are selected. You then place a circle graphic object behind and centered on each bullet character to complete the illusion.
This also enables you to give the circle portion of the simulated radio button a contrasting color from that of the bullet character used to "fill" it.