The exact structure of your data is not clear as you don't always distinguish between the design of a layout and the design of its underlying table. The fact that you have different years on different tabs of a layout doesn't tell us if how that data is stored in your table(s).
There are two basic ways to limit a chart to data from a specified year: Perform a find for all records for a specified year. Use a relationship to match only to records from a specified year.
And there are more sophisticated options with delimited data produced by ExecuteSQL such that you can chart different data series, each for a different year on the same chart.
But all of these options start with that data model that is not yet fully described.