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Yes and no.
Yes, you can copy objects off the layout--even do a select all and copy all the objects in one such copy, but no, you can't copy the rest of the design elements such as what table occurrence the layout is based on or the type and size of any layout parts (Header, footer, sub summary...). Value lists, relationships linking to other tables as is needed for a portal or just to place a field from a related table also cannot be copied.
Create or rename a table occurrence in the target file so that it has the exact same name as the table occurrence on which the source layout is based. (This is the name shown in "show records from" in layout set up.) Now create a new blank layout based on this table occurrence. If the original layout contains portals or fields from a related table, these relationships and their table occurrences must also be exactly duplicated in the source file.
Enter layout mode on the source layout, click each part label and note the height of it in the Inspector's position tab. Recreate these parts on the target layout--you can copy the part's height from the inspector, change files and then select the layout part and paste into the inspector's height box to get exactly matching layout dimensions.
Recreate any value lists in the target file that are used on the layout in the source file. The names must be exactly the same.
If you do not have any buttons or script triggers on this layout that perform scripts, skip this step.
Go to the source layout, select all layout objects and copy them to the clipboard. Go to the target layout and paste them. Do not bother trying to position the pasted objects correctly--you'll delete what you just pasted in a few moments.
Import each and every script from the source file that is performed by a button or script trigger on the layout that you are duplicating.
Review each script for potential issues and fix any that have occurred. We pasted the layout first so that any scripted references to objects on this layout will not be broken when we imported the scripts.
Now delete all the pasted objects from the target layout. Any buttons or script triggers were broken due to the absence of the scripts we imported after the fact so we need to paste them again now that the scripts are in place.
Select all objects on the target layout. If this is fileMaker 12, group them as a single group. Note the top and left position values in the Inspector for this group of selected objects. Go to the target layout and paste the objects to the layout. With the newly pasted objects still selected, edit the values in the top and left boxes to exactly match the values in the source layout to precisely position them to fit the new layout.
Enter browse mode and carefully test your new layout to make sure that it works correctly in context of your new layout. At this point, you can edit any table occurrence names that you changed back at the beginning if you prefer their original names.