No field will automatically appear on all layouts simply as a result of adding it as a new field in Manage | Database | Fields.
There is a preference setting that will automatically add it to the current layout, but that does not automatically add it to all layouts and since this often screws up a layout, I keep this preference disabled anyway.
But you can enter layout mode and add this field to a layout by using either the field tool or the field picker (new to filemaker 13). And for Table Views, you also have the option of clicking the "modify" button and selecting the field for that table view.
But keep in mind the following important details:
FileMaker automatically creates a new layout and a new table occurrence each time you create a new table. They will have names identical to the new table but they are not the same object. A "table occurrence" is a box in Manage | Database | Relationships that you can use to link one table to another in a relationship. Each layout is based on one specific table occurrence. You'll find out which one by checking the "show records from" menu in Layout Setup. When FileMaker automatically creates that new layout for your new table, it selects the new table occurrence for you. But keep in mind that you can rename both layout and table occurrence to be different from the table that they refer to and you can create many more layouts and many more table occurrences that all refer to your new table.
So when you add a new field to a layout, the results you get will depend on a) the table occurrence specified for the layout, b) the table occurrence from which you selected the field to add to the layout, c) the relationship between these two table occurrences if they are not the same one and d) the value in any specified match fields of the current record in the layout's table if (again) this field is not from the same table occurrence as the layout.
For more on table occurrences: Tutorial: What are Table Occurrences?